Tutorial: History

Import your best Leonard Nimoy documentary voice and get ready for the xonsh tutorial on history.

How is xonsh history different?

Most shells - bash foremost among them - think of history as a linear sequence of past commands that have been entered into the terminal. This is saved when the shell exits, and loaded when the new shell starts. But this is no longer how the world works.

The world is a messy, asynchronous place. We usually have at least as many terminals (and shells) open at a time as we can practically handle - and probably even more! In xonsh, history acknowledges that this is the case. Instead of a single history file of inputs, xonsh implements a collection of JSON-formatted history files that can be thought of as having the following structure:

{'env': {...},  # Environment that xonsh was started with
 'sessionid': str, # UUID4 for the session
 'ts': [start, stop],  # start and stop timestamps for session [s since epoch]
 'locked': True,  # boolean for whether the file is in use or not
 'cmds': [  # array of commands
    {'inp': str,  # input command
     'ts': [start, stop],  # timestamps for the command
     'rtn': int, # command return code
     'out' str,  # stdout and stderr of command, for subproc commands
                 # this is only available select OSs. Off by default.

This rich set of data allows xonsh to do much more advanced inspection and manipulation. The sessionid, locking, and one-file-per-shell ideas allow for there to be multiple instances of xonsh running at the same time without competing and overwriting history constantly. Of course, an external process deleting a history file can still cause problems. But hey, the world and the file system are messy places to be!

Why have rich history?

Often by the time you know that you need a historical artifact, it is already too late. You can’t remember:

  • the input exactly,

  • you think that you remember the output but when you rerun the command what you get now seems somehow different,

  • who knows what the return code was,

  • and whatever command you ran right before is now lost in the mists of time!

So the reasons for having rich history are debugging and reproducibility. Xonsh takes the guess-work out of the past. There is even the ability to store all of stdout, though this is turned off by default. If history was just a static file, it would be more like a server log than a traditional history file.

history command

All xonsh history inspection and manipulation goes through the top-level history alias or command. If you run this without an action argument, it will default to the show action, see below.

>>> history

Also note that the history object itself can be accessed through the xonsh built-in variable __xonsh__.history.

show action

The show action for the history command mimics what the history command does in other shells. Namely, it displays the past inputs along with the index of these inputs. This operates on the current session by default and is the default action for the history command. For example,

>>> 1 + 1
>>> history show
 0  1 + 1
>>> history
 0  1 + 1
 1  history show


History is zero-indexed; this is still Python.

The show command can also optionally take as an argument any integer (to just display that history index) or a slice (to display a range of history indices). To display only the even indices from above, you could write:

>>> history show ::2
 0  1 + 1
 2  history

One can also use many slice/integer arguments to get different portions of history

After show an option that indicates which history to be returned can be used:

xonsh displays the past inputs from all valid json files found in XONSH_DATA_DIR. As such, this operates on all past and present xonsh sessions.

all is an alias for xonsh.

zsh will display all history from the history file specified by the HISTFILE environmental variable in zsh. By default this is ~/.zsh_history. However, they can also be respectively specified in both ~/.zshrc and ~/.zprofile. Xonsh will parse these files (rc file first) to check if HISTFILE has been set.

The bash action will display all history from the history file specified by the HISTFILE environmental variable in bash. By default this is ~/.bash_history. However, they can also be respectively specified in both ~/.bashrc and ~/.bash_profile. Xonsh will parse these files (rc file first) to check if HISTFILE has been set.

show also accepts other options for more control over history output, the -n option is used to enumerate the commands, the -t option is used to show the timestamps, and more, try out history show --help for a list of options.

id action

Each xonsh history has its own universally unique sessionid. The id action is how you display this identified. For instance,

>>> history id

file action

Similarly, each xonsh history has its own file associated with it. The file action is how you display the path to this file. For example,

>>> history file

Note that by these files are stored in $XONSH_DATA_DIR environment variable. This is, by default, set to the xonsh dir inside of the free desktop standards $XDG_DATA_HOME environment variable. See this page for more details.

info action

The info action combines the id and file actions as well as adds some additional information about the current state of the history. By default, this prints a key-value series of lines. However, it can also return a JSON formatted string.

>>> history info
sessionid: ace97177-f8dd-4a8d-8a91-a98ffd0b3d17
filename: /home/scopatz/.local/share/xonsh/xonsh-ace97177-f8dd-4a8d-8a91-a98ffd0b3d17.json
length: 6
buffersize: 100
bufferlength: 6
>>> history info --json
{"sessionid": "ace97177-f8dd-4a8d-8a91-a98ffd0b3d17",
 "filename": "/home/scopatz/.local/share/xonsh/xonsh-ace97177-f8dd-4a8d-8a91-a98ffd0b3d17.json",
 "length": 7, "buffersize": 100, "bufferlength": 7}

diff action

Between any two history files, we can run the diff action. This does more that a simple line diff that you might generate with the unix diff command. (If you want a line diff, just use the unix command!) Instead this takes advantage of the fact that we know we have xonsh history files to do a more sophisticated diff on the environment, input, output (if available), and return values. Of course, the histories inputs should be ‘sufficiently similar’ if the diff is to be meaningful. However, they don’t need to be exactly the same.

The diff action has one major option, -v or --verbose. This basically says whether the diff should go into as much detail as possible or only pick out the relevant pieces. Diffing the new and next examples, we see the diff looks like:

>>> history diff ~/new.json ~/next.json
--- /home/scopatz/new.json (35712b6f-4b15-4ef9-8ce3-b4c781601bc2) [unlocked]
started: 2015-08-27 15:13:44.873869 stopped: 2015-08-27 15:13:44.918903 runtime: 0:00:00.045034
+++ /home/scopatz/next.json (70d7186e-3eb9-4b1c-8f82-45bb8a1b7967) [unlocked]
started: 2015-08-27 15:15:09.423932 stopped: 2015-08-27 15:15:09.619098 runtime: 0:00:00.195166

'PATH' is in both, but differs
- /home/scopatz/.local/bin:/home/scopatz/sandbox/bin:/home/scopatz/miniconda3/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/home/scopatz/origen22/code/
+ /home/scopatz/.local/bin:/home/scopatz/sandbox/bin:/home/scopatz/miniconda3/bin:/home/scopatz/.local/bin:/home/scopatz/sandbox/bin:/home/scopatz/miniconda3/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/home/scopatz/origen22/code/:/home/scopatz/origen22/code/

'SHLVL' is in both, but differs
- 2
+ 3

'XONSH_INTERACTIVE' is in both, but differs
- True
+ False

These vars are only in 70d7186e-3eb9-4b1c-8f82-45bb8a1b7967: {'OLDPWD'}

cmd #4 in 35712b6f-4b15-4ef9-8ce3-b4c781601bc2 input is the same as
cmd #4 in 70d7186e-3eb9-4b1c-8f82-45bb8a1b7967, but output differs:
Outputs differ
- 2  10
+ 2  7  10

cmd #5 in 35712b6f-4b15-4ef9-8ce3-b4c781601bc2 input is the same as
cmd #5 in 70d7186e-3eb9-4b1c-8f82-45bb8a1b7967, but output differs:
Outputs differ
- /home/scopatz/new.json
+ /home/scopatz/next.json

As can be seen, the diff has three sections.

  1. The header describes the meta-information about the histories, such as their file names, sessionids, and time stamps.

  2. The environment section describes the differences in the environment when the histories were started.

  3. The commands list this differences in the command themselves.

For the commands, the input sequences are diff’d first, prior to the outputs being compared. In a terminal, this will appear in color, with the first history in red and the second one in green.

flush action

Normally, the history entries are kept in memory and are only saved to disk once the in-memory buffer gets full. This is in order to reduce unnecessary I/O and to keep session history free from noise from other sessions. Sometimes, however, it may be useful to share entries between shell sessions. In such a case, one can use the flush action to immediately save the session history to disk and make it accessible from other shell sessions.

pull action

Tries to pull the history from parallel sessions and add to the current session.

For example if there are two parallel terminal windows the run of history pull command from the second terminal window will get the commands from the first terminal.

clear action

Deletes the history from the current session up until this point. Later commands will still be saved.

off action

Deletes the history from the current session and turns off history saving for the rest of the session. Only session metadata will be saved, not commands or output.

on action

Turns history saving back on. Previous commands won’t be saved, but future commands will be.

gc action

Last, but certainly not least, the gc action is a manual hook into executing history garbage control. Since history has the potential for a lot of information to be stored, it is necessary to be able to clean out the cache every once in a while.

Garbage control is launched automatically for every xonsh thread, but runs in the a background thread. The garbage collector only operates on unlocked history files. The action here allows you to manually start a new garbage collector, possibly with different criteria.

Normally, the garbage collector uses the environment variable $XONSH_HISTORY_SIZE to determine the size and units of what should be allowed to remain on disk. By default, this is (8128, 'commands'). This variable is usually a tuple or list of a number and a string, as seen here. However, you can also use a string with the same information, e.g. '8128 commands'. On the command line, though, you just pass in two arguments to the --size option, a la --size 8128 commands.

The garbage collector accepts four canonical units:

  1. 'commands' is for limiting the number of past commands executed in the

    history files,

  2. 'files' is for specifying the total number of history files to keep,

  3. 's' is for the number of seconds in the past that are allowed - which is effectively a timeout of the history files, and

  4. 'b' is for the number of bytes that are allowed on the file system for all history files to collectively consume.

However, other units, aliases, and appropriate conversion functions have been implemented. This makes it easier to garbage collect based on human-friendly values.

GC Aliases:

{'commands': ['', 'c', 'cmd', 'cmds', 'command'],
 'files': ['f'],
 's': ['sec', 'second', 'seconds', 'm', 'min', 'mins', 'h', 'hr', 'hour', 'hours',
       'd', 'day', 'days', 'mon', 'month', 'months', 'y', 'yr', 'yrs', 'year', 'years'],
 'b': ['byte', 'bytes', 'kb', 'kilobyte', 'kilobytes', 'mb', 'meg', 'megs', 'megabyte',
       'megabytes', 'gb', 'gig', 'gigs', 'gigabyte', 'gigabytes', 'tb', 'terabyte',

So all said and done, if you wanted to remove all history files older than a month, you could run the following command:

>>> history gc --size 1 month

History Indexing

History object (__xonsh__.history) acts like a sequence that can be indexed in a special way that adds extra functionality. At the moment only history from the current session can be retrieved. Note that the most recent command is the last item in history.

The index acts as a filter with two parts, command and argument, separated by comma. Based on the type of each part different filtering can be achieved,

for the command part:
  • an int returns the command in that position.

  • a slice returns a list of commands.

for the argument part:
  • an int returns the argument of the command in that position.

  • a slice returns a part of the command based on the argument position.

The argument part of the filter can be omitted but the command part is required.

Command arguments are separated by white space.

If the filtering produces only one result it is returned as a string else a list of strings is returned.


>>> echo mkdir with/a/huge/name/
mkdir with/a/huge/name
>>> __xonsh__.history[-1, -1]
>>> __xonsh__.history[0, 1:]
'mkdir with/a/huge/name'

Exciting Technical Detail: Lazy JSON

So now you know how to inspect, run, and remove history. But what is a history file exactly? While xonsh history files are JSON formatted, and they do have the structure indicated at the top of the page, that isn’t their top-level structure. If you open one up, you’ll see a bunch of hocus pocus before you get to anything real.

Xonsh has implemented a generic indexing system (sizes, offsets, etc)for JSON files that lives inside of the file that it indexes. This is known as LazyJSON because it allows us to only read in the parts of a file that we need. For garbage collecting based on the number of commands, we can get this information from the index and don’t need to read in any of the original data.

The best part about this is that it is totally generic. Feel free to use xonsh.lazyjson yourself for things other than xonsh history! Of course, if you want to read in xonsh history, you should probably use the module.

Exciting Technical Detail: Teeing and Pseudo Terminals

Xonsh is able to capture all stdout and stderr transparently and responsively. For aliases, Python code, or xonsh code, this isn’t a big deal. It is easy to redirect information flowing through sys.stdout and sys.stderr. For subprocess commands, this is considerably harder. Capturing stdout during the session is disabled by default but can be enabled by setting $XONSH_CAPTURE_ALWAYS=True. Storing stdout to the history backend is disabled by default but can be enabled by setting $XONSH_STORE_STDOUT=True.

To be able to tee stdout and stderr and still have the terminal responsive, xonsh implements its own teeing pseudo-terminal on top of the Python standard library pty module. You can find this class in the xonsh.teepty module. Like with lazy JSON, this is independent from other parts of xonsh and can be used on its own. If you find this useful in other areas, please let us know!

Sqlite History Backend

Xonsh has a second built-in history backend powered by sqlite (other than the JSON version mentioned all above in this tutorial). It shares the same functionality as the JSON version in most ways, except it currently doesn’t support the history diff action and does not store the output of commands, as the json-backend does. E.g. __xonsh__.history[-1].out will always be None.

The Sqlite history backend can provide a speed advantage in loading history into a just-started xonsh session. The JSON history backend may need to read potentially thousands of json files and the sqlite backend only reads one. Note that this does not affect startup time, but the amount of time before all history is available for searching.

To use sqlite history backend, set $XONSH_HISTORY_BACKEND = 'sqlite' in your ~/.xonshrc file. To switch back to JSON version, remove this line, or set it to 'json'.


SQLite history backend currently only supports commands as the unit in $XONSH_HISTORY_SIZE in its garbage collection.


If you have sqlite-web installed, you can read the history easily with command: sqlite_web @$(history file).

Fun ideas for history data

Now that we have all of this history data, it seems like what we have here is just the tip of the iceberg! Here are some hopefully fun ideas that I think would be great to see implemented:

  • Basic statistic reports about command usage, timing, etc.,

  • Global statistics by collecting anonymized histories from many people,

  • MCMC-based tab-completer for inputs,

  • and many more!

Let us know if you’d be interested in working on any of these, inside or outside of xonsh.